• Support the 21st century economy with new protections for U.S. intellectual property and secure opportunities for U.S. services trade. However, some concerns have been expressed by the WTO. According to Pascal Lamy, Director-General of the WTO, the dissemination of regional trade agreements (RTAs) is “. is concern – concern about inconsistency, confusion, exponentially rising costs for businesses, unpredictability and even injustice in business relations. “ The WTO is of the view that while typical trade agreements (designated by the WTO as preferential or regional) are useful to some extent, it is much more advantageous to focus on global agreements within the WTO framework, such as the negotiations in the current Doha Round. It should be noted that the EU`s new generation of deep trade agreements exacerbates a problem – regulation – that is already causing friction in the EU`s internal market in the context of market making versus market correction.20 European standards are important in shaping the nature of EU market integration. Their development has been conditioned by the development of European regulations (market correction), which presupposes preferential convergence; Different preferences may be taken into account by the principle of mutual recognition of national standards.
Mutual recognition is a fundamental principle of the functioning of the internal market, with national rules being accepted as equivalent in the EU area (market making). In practice, mutual recognition presupposes competition between regulatory systems. Trust is fundamental to facilitating mutual recognition and countering fears of a race to the bottom. A concept of similarity fosters trust between countries and thus supports mutual recognition of national market rules. It is, of course, difficult to distinguish truly heterogeneous preferences from technical or administrative differences that lead to frictional barriers to trade that cannot be justified by different preferences.21 On 20 May 2005, the Mercosur countries held preliminary talks with Mexico to make Mexico an associate member of the trading bloc. Associate members enjoy preferential tariff treatment for their products, but are not required to apply Mercosur`s common external tariffs. (47) In line with the general principles and objectives of the negotiations, trade ministers agreed to ensure transparency during the negotiations and also agreed that the FTA should improve WTO rules and disciplines wherever possible and appropriate. Ministers agreed that the negotiations would be a unique obligation, as signatories to the final FTAA agreement would have to accept all parts of it (i.e. not be able to choose between commitments). (35) They also agreed that only democracies could participate in a free trade agreement and publish the provisionally negotiated texts. On January 1, 1989, the date of its entry into force, this agreement was designed between the United States, Canada and Mexico to eliminate tariff barriers between different countries.
An underlying question is whether the United States should further deepen trade integration in North and South America and, if so, whether negotiating bilateral trade agreements is the most appropriate trade policy. As mentioned earlier, some analysts do not believe that bilateral trade agreements are the best course of action, as they divert attention from the revival of FTAA negotiations and slow down the process. Others believe that RTAs have led to the consolidation of trade agreements in larger free trade areas in other parts of the world, and that the same could happen over time in the Western Hemisphere. The first summit of the Community of South American Nations was held in Brasilia on 30 September 2005. The majority of heads of state from South American countries attended the summit. Despite Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez`s efforts to replace the proposed structure of the CSN with his own proposal, summit representatives decided to advance what their foreign ministers had already developed in preparatory meetings. They supported the idea of merging Mercosur and CAN to turn all of South America into a free trade area. One of the outcomes of the summit was to call on the secretariats of all existing integration mechanisms to prepare studies on the convergence of trade agreements among South American countries by mid-2006 at the latest. (61) Mexico and Canada have increased as places of foreign direct investment of the United States (USDIA), although their share in the USDIA as a whole has decreased slightly since the 1990s. (22) Between 1993 and 2003, the USDIA in Canada and Mexico increased from USD 84 billion (15 % of the USDIA total) to USD 254 billion (14 % of the total). In Canada, the USDIA increased from $70.4 billion (12.8% of the total) to $192 billion (10.8% of the total), while in Mexico, it increased from $15.4 billion (1.8% of the total) to $62 billion (2.8% of the total) over the same period. Canada was the second largest recipient of the USDIA in 2003 (behind the United Kingdom, which ranked first), while Mexico was the ninth largest recipient.
(23) The slow progress of multilateral negotiations may also contribute to increasing interest in regional trading blocs. Some countries may view small trade agreements as “building blocks” of multilateral agreements. For example, the United States recently ratified THE DCFTA-DR and is advancing negotiations with Panama and the Andean countries as part of its overall free trade strategy in America. All U.S. trade with NAFTA partners has increased significantly over the past 11 years. The volume of trade with NAFTA partners increased from $293 billion in 1993 to $710 billion in 2004. Canada and Mexico accounted for 31% of total U.S. trade, up from $2.29 trillion in 2004, up from $292.7 billion, or 28% of total U.S. trade in 1993.
The U.S. trade deficit with its NAFTA partners also increased from USD 12 billion (9% of the total) in 1993 to USD 113 billion in 2004 (17% of the total). Over the past three years, the share of U.S. trade with its NAFTA partners has declined relative to the rest of the world. In 2001, Canada and Mexico accounted for 33% of total U.S. trade. In 2004, this percentage fell to 31 per cent. Canada and Mexico have also accounted for a smaller share of the U.S. trade deficit since 2001, rising from 27 per cent of the overall deficit in 2001 to 17 per cent of the overall deficit in 2004. (21) In 1823, the Reciprocity of Duties Act was passed, which significantly supported the British portage trade and allowed for the reciprocal abolition of import duties under bilateral trade agreements with other nations. In 1846, the Corn Laws, which had introduced restrictions on grain imports, were repealed, and in 1850 the protectionist policy on British imports was abandoned.